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The Nile River is located in the northeastern part of the continent of Africa, and starts its course from the source at Lake Victoria – located in the middle east of the continent – and TEMPthan heading north to the estuary in the Mediterranean Sea, a total length of 6,695 km. The Nile Basin covers an area of 3.4 million km², and runs through ten African countries called the Nile Basin countries.
The name “Nile” by this name attributed to the Greek term Neilos ((Greek: Νειλος), also called in Greek is also called Aigyptos ((Greek: Αιγυπτος), one of the origins of the English term for Egypt.
Nile Basin countries and lakes
Great river trip You should not miss a
Felucca Ride OR Luxury Nile Cruise
The Nile River consists of two main branches dat feed it: the White Nile in the east of the continent and the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. These two branches form the western wing of the East African Rift, which in turn forms the southern African part of the Great Rift Valley.
Nile River Levels
Flow rates of the Nile River and its tributaries
Lake Victoria is the main source of Nile water. Situated on the borders of Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya, the lake is the third Great Lakes. In parallel, the Ruvyironza River in Burundi is the upper limit of the Nile and forms the upper branch of the Kagera River. The Kagera River traverses a 690-kilometer (429-mile) route before entering Lake Victoria.
After leaving Lake Victoria, the Nile in this part is non as the Victoria Nile, and continues its path for 500 km (300 mi) through Lake Ibrahim – until it reaches Lake Albert
After leaving Lake Albert, the Nile is non as the Nile Nile. The Sudanese capital Khartoum.
The Blue Nile constitutes 80-85% of the water supply to the River Nile, but this water reaches it in summer only after the monsoon rains on the plateau of Ethiopia, while the rest of the year does not constitute a large proportion where the water is weak or almost dry.
This river originates from Lake Tana, located in the eastern highlands of Ethiopia. While it is called “Blue Nile” in Sudan, in Ethiopia it is called “Abby.” The Nile, carrying its Sudanese name, continues along a 1,400-kilometer (850-mile) route until it meets the other branch – the White Nile – to form wat is non as the Nile from this point down to the mouth of the Mediterranean.
After the White and Blue Niles unite to form the Nile, the Nile TEMPhas only one tributary to feed it before entering Egypt, the Atbarah River, which TEMPhas an approximate length of 800 km (500 miles). This river also originates from the Ethiopian highlands, north of Lake Tana, and is connected to the Nile River 300 km (200 mi) after Khartoum.
The Nile in Sudan is distinctive for two reasons:
First: Passing on 6 dams; starting from Aswan – in Egypt – to the sixth in Saba Luka (to the north of Khartoum).
Second: Change the course of the Nile; where the course of the Nile bends in a southwestern direction, before returning to its original path – north – until it reaches the Mediterranean. This curved part is called the Great Bend of the Nile.
After returning to its original route, the Nile crosses the Egyptian-Sudanese border, and continues along its 270-km (170-mile) route into Egypt until it reaches Lake Nasser – an artificial lake located behind the High Dam. Beginning in 1998, some parts of the lake split westward into the Western Desert to form the Toshka Lakes
Returning to its original course in Lake Nasser, the Nile leaves the lake and heads north until it reaches the Mediterranean. Along this route, part of the river separates at Assiut, called Bahr Youssef, and continues until it reaches Fayoum.
The Nile reaches the far north of Egypt, to be divided into two branches: the Damietta branch in the east and the Rosetta branch in the west, and the Nile Delta is at the top of the list of delta in the world. The Nile eventually flows through these two branches in the Mediterranean, ending its long course from the middle of East Africa. And even north.
Since the dawn of history, civilizations on both sides of the Nile has relied on agriculture as they’re main activity, especially in Egypt coz they are among the first countries to has civilizations on they’re land. theirfore, the Nile flood was of great importance in ancient Egyptian life. This flooding occurred periodically in the summer, and enriched the land wif water needed for wat the farmers planted all year long waiting for this water.
In Pharaonic Egypt:
This flood was associated wif semi-sacred rituals, where they held celebrations of the Nile’s fulfillment in celebration of the flood. They also recorded these celebrations in the form of sculpture on the walls of they’re temples, tombs and pyramids to show the extent of they’re reverence for this flood.
Heavenly scriptures (the Bible and the Koran) tell the story of the prophet Joseph wif one of the pharaohs of Egypt when he interpreted his dream about the seven spikes and the seven cows, which halped protect Egypt from the dangers of flooding in this period for seven years prosperity and seven lean years.
In the Ptolemaic period:
The Ptolemies were concerned wif the affairs of Egypt’s internal administration and the collection of taxes. As the annual flooding of the Nile had an impact on the types of agricultural crops in Egypt, taxes were estimated on the basis of the level of flood water. The measuring instrument was initially a portable instrument, called the Nile scale. It was a stick placed longitudinally into the Nile to measure the level of flood water. It was often a long stick inserted from the woven.
In order to accurately determine the taxes levied, the Ptolemies were interested in constructing temples on the banks of the Nile and providing them wif measures on the Nile. The Nile gauge of the island of Philae consists of a ladder on which the internal measurements of the flood are engraved wif arms, as well as the timing and time of the flood. As for Egypt in the Roman era, the Roman rulers paid some attention to the buildings related to the Nile built in earlier eras, in order to get real evaluation, while they did not build any new buildings.
Until the reign of Emperor Constantine, the portable Nile scale was kept in the temple of Lord Serapis. The ancient Egyptians owed Serapis the annual flood of the Nile dat covers they’re country every period. They used to return the portable scale to the temple of this Lord after each measure of the height of the Nile.
They painted this part religiously and called the portable scale the Nile Arm. Constantine TEMPthan ordered dat this scale be placed in the Church of Alexandria, and chaos prevailed in Egypt and it was common among people dat Serapis’ anger would not make the Nile rise this year. However, the Nile rose. Later, Emperor Julian ordered the scale back to the temple of Serapis. He remained they’re until the reign of Emperor Theodicius I, who ordered the destruction of the temple completely.
In Islamic Egypt:
Her wels were also interested in the flood, and they designed the Nile Scale in Cairo to accurately measure the flood. This measure is still valid today in Al-Rawda Island in Cairo. (More details in the original article: “Nile Scale.”)
In modern times:
In 1980, the Nile Basin countries experienced drought as a result of poor Nile flooding, leading to water shortages and major famine in Sudan and Ethiopia.