The story of the history of the museum began when foreign consuls accredited in Egypt admired the Ancient Egyptian Art, and worked to collect the Egyptian Antiquities, and sent to the major European cities, and thus began to flourish Egyptian antiquities trade, which then became a European fashion. Gifts from Egyptian artifacts during the 19th century were so many, and the coffins were among the most sought after, and the Egyptians initially did not understand the motives that made Europeans care about the stones on their land. More important behind the excavation of Egyptians for antiquities f In temples and tombs are rumors that some of these relics were hidden treasures. So you have to see it when you come in.

Cairo Day Tour

Muhammad Ali Pasha ruled Egypt at the time, which began a new political strategy based on the opening of Egypt to the Western world, and in 1835 Muhammad Ali Pasha issued a decree establishing the department of Antiquities and the Egyptian Museum Zia Effendi, under the supervision of Sheikh Refaah Al-Tahtawi to re-awaken interest in the effects of the past and succeeded in warning public opinion the value of antiquities and ordered a decision on August 15, 1835 to prevent smuggling and trafficking in Egyptian antiquities abroad, but the need to preserve the Egyptian Museum at the time overlooking the banks of the pool Azbakiya and then he was enrolled in Al-Alsun School.

Yusuf Zia Effendi, director of the Department of Antiquities, began to inspect the antiquities of Central Egypt, which were found by farmers when they transported fertilizers from archaeological piles. Sending important monuments to the Egyptian Museum, this work was not successful because of the death of Mohamed Ali Pasha in 1849, which was followed by the turmoil again and the phenomenon of trafficking in Egyptian antiquities reappeared, and took the collection of the museum, which was held in Azbakia in Tthe downturn was slowly being transferred until it was transferred to the Saladin Fort in Sa, this was made worse by what happened during the visit of the Austrian Duke Maximilian, where he visited the antiquities hall in the castle and when he showed interest in it until Khedive Abbas I gift it to him without keeping anything, A timeless page of the history and glory of the first museum to be established in Egypt has been turned.

The series continued to show the Egyptian antiquities of looting and destruction until Khedive Abbas issued orders to the provincial directorate directing their attention to impose strict control on foreigners and Egyptians who were stealing and hiding and selling Pharaonic antiquities. He also made excavations at the calf of Apis cemetery that lasted for nearly three years, which sought to persuade the guardians to establish an Egyptian Antiquities Authority and an Egyptian Museum. In 1858, Khedive Said agreed to establish an Egyptian Antiquities Authority and appointed him Egypt and excavation management on 19 June 1858, Mariette began extensive archaeological research programs, but faced many problems, especially in the initial phase of the establishment of the Department and established an archaeological reservoir on the banks of the Nile in Bulaq, which became a museum when the discovery of Queen Ihhotep’s treasure. On February 5, 1859, in the area of ​​Daraa Abou El Naga in Taybeh, one of the most important pieces discovered was the sarcophagus, in which a group of jewels, ornaments and weapons were found that were of a very high degree of magnificence and luxury. It was built during the reign of Khedive Ismail and was inaugurated for the visit In 1863, the museum was initially a huge building overlooking The Nile, but it was flooded in 1878, flooding the halls of the museum to the point that a collection of exhibits of scientific artistic value was lost.

Mariet considered the Bulaq Museum a temporary place, and after the flooding, he found the opportunity to demand the establishment of a permanent headquarters of the museum with a large capacity to accommodate a larger collection of monuments and at the same time away from the flood path. He worked with Mariette for almost 20 years, and was succeeded by Gaston Maspero, who tried to move the museum from his place in Bulaq, but was not so lucky, and in 1889 the building with antiquities reached its peak. There are not enough rooms either in the halls or stores for more monuments found during excavations that are left in boats in Upper Egypt for long periods.

This tragic situation led to the abandonment of Khedive Ismail to one of his palaces in Giza, where the Zoo is now located, to be the new headquarters of the museum, and between the summer and the end of 1889 had been transferred all the relics of the museum Bulaq to Giza.
In January 1897, the foundations of the new museum building (the current site of liberation) began along the British army barracks in Cairo at the Nile Palace, and he celebrated the laying of the foundation stone on the 1st of April of the same year in the presence of Prince Abbas Helmy and the French Egyptologist Maspero who returned in this time to head the Department of Antiquities, the project was completed by the German Herman Grabou.

In November 1903, the Department of Antiquities appointed the Italian architect Alessandro Barazente, who had received the keys of the museum since March 9, 1902, and the transfer of archaeological collections from the Khedive Ismail Palace in Giza to the new museum, the process in which five thousand wooden carts were used. It was transported on two trains back and forth about nineteen times between Giza and the Nile Palace, and the first shipment carried about forty-eight coffins, weighing more than 1,000 tons in total.
However, the transfer process was marred by chaos for some time .. The transfer was completed on July 13, 1902, and the Mariette Mausoleum was moved to the museum garden, in response to his recommendation that he expressed his desire to settle his body in the museum garden with effects that he spent a long time assembling during his lifetime.

On November 15, 1902, the Egyptian Museum was officially inaugurated, and the new museum relied on a display style that gradually arranged the halls and did not take into account the allocation of rooms for periods of turmoil, as they were considered historically irrelevant. The monuments were classified by museum according to their themes, but for architectural reasons then the huge statues were placed on the ground floor, while the funerary cryptos discovered on the first floor were displayed according to the historical sequence. The rooms became the only museum in the world to be stacked with antiquities, asked why, Maspero replied that the Egyptian Museum is a picture of the pharaonic tomb or temple, the artist used every part of it to put a painting or hieroglyphic inscriptions, even the modern Egyptian house at the time was placing paintings and pictures so that each part is used on the wall, ie the museum is a picture of the present and old Egyptian.

Architectural Design

Seventy-three design projects competed for the building of the museum at the time, and in the end was chosen the design of the French architect Marcel Dornon designed creative work during this period. Moreover, it was the first museum in the world designed and built to be a museum and not a converted building the architectural styles and elements of the museum building were influenced by Greek classical art and architecture and did not contain any influences of ancient Egyptian art and temples except in the design of its rooms or in the design of its interior halls. , A portal the victory of the French architect Dornon sparked controversy among the members of the Italian and Cairo committee, which had worked hard to finance this project, where the Italians considered this French victory as they defeated them and admitted that they had been deceived, perhaps, for this reason, the building was awarded to the Italian company.

Museum Collections

Prehistory: This group represents the cultural product of the Egyptian human being before the knowledge of writing, which settled in many places in Egypt in the north, center and south of the country. It includes various types of pottery, toiletry, fishing gear and daily life requirements.
Era of foundation: Includes traces of the first and second dynasties, such as the prayer of Narmer and the statue of Kha Sakhmawi and many pots and tools.
The Age of the Old Kingdom: It includes a number of monuments, the most important of which are the statues of Zosro Khafra, Menkaweer, Sheikh of the country, Dwarf Snape, Beye i and his son Meri-Re, many coffins, statues of individuals, frescoes and the collection of Queen Hetepheres.
The Middle Kingdom: This collection includes many monuments, the most important of which are the statue of King Montuhotep II and the statues of some of the kings of the family 12 such as Senusert I and Amenemhat III and others, and many statues of individuals and coffins and ornaments and tools of daily life, and pyramids of some pyramids of Fayoum.
Modern Age: The most famous collection of antiques, including the collection of the small pharaoh Tutankhamun and statues of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III and Ramses II in addition to the war wheels and papyri and ornaments and the collection of Akhenaten and the painting of Israel and statues of Amenhotep III and his wife T and amulets and writing tools and agriculture, and then the group of Royal Mummies that show In its own hall which opened in 1994.
Late times: The collection includes a variety of monuments, including the treasures of Tanis, which represent some of the effects made of gold, silver and precious stones, which were found in the tombs of some of the kings and queens of the families of 21, 22 in San stone. This is in addition to some important statues such as the statue of Amun, Mentouemat, a statue of the goddess Tawart, the painting of the decision of Canopus (Abu Qir), the painting of Ankhi and a collection of Nuba relics, some of which were transferred to the Nubian Museum in Aswan.